beyond top level package error in relative import

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beyond top level package error in relative import

How to solve beyond top level package error in relative import

EDIT: There are better/more coherent answers to this question in other questions:
Sibling package imports
Relative imports for the billionth time
Why doesn’t it work? It’s because python doesn’t record where a package was loaded from. So when you do python -m test_A.test, it basically just discards the knowledge that test_A.test is actually stored in package (i.e. package is not considered a package). Attempting from ..A import foo is trying to access information it doesn’t have any more (i.e. sibling directories of a loaded location). It’s conceptually similar to allowing from ..os import path in a file in math. This would be bad because you want the packages to be distinct. If they need to use something from another package, then they should refer to them globally with from os import path and let python work out where that is with $PATH and $PYTHONPATH.
When you use python -m package.test_A.test, then using from ..A import foo resolves just fine because it kept track of what’s in package and you’re just accessing a child directory of a loaded location.
Why doesn’t python consider the current working directory to be a package? NO CLUE, but gosh it would be useful.

beyond top level package error in relative import

EDIT: There are better/more coherent answers to this question in other questions:
Sibling package imports
Relative imports for the billionth time
Why doesn’t it work? It’s because python doesn’t record where a package was loaded from. So when you do python -m test_A.test, it basically just discards the knowledge that test_A.test is actually stored in package (i.e. package is not considered a package). Attempting from ..A import foo is trying to access information it doesn’t have any more (i.e. sibling directories of a loaded location). It’s conceptually similar to allowing from ..os import path in a file in math. This would be bad because you want the packages to be distinct. If they need to use something from another package, then they should refer to them globally with from os import path and let python work out where that is with $PATH and $PYTHONPATH.
When you use python -m package.test_A.test, then using from ..A import foo resolves just fine because it kept track of what’s in package and you’re just accessing a child directory of a loaded location.
Why doesn’t python consider the current working directory to be a package? NO CLUE, but gosh it would be useful.

Solution 1

EDIT: There are better/more coherent answers to this question in other questions:


Why doesn’t it work? It’s because python doesn’t record where a package was loaded from. So when you do python -m test_A.test, it basically just discards the knowledge that test_A.test is actually stored in package (i.e. package is not considered a package). Attempting from ..A import foo is trying to access information it doesn’t have any more (i.e. sibling directories of a loaded location). It’s conceptually similar to allowing from ..os import path in a file in math. This would be bad because you want the packages to be distinct. If they need to use something from another package, then they should refer to them globally with from os import path and let python work out where that is with $PATH and $PYTHONPATH.

When you use python -m package.test_A.test, then using from ..A import foo resolves just fine because it kept track of what’s in package and you’re just accessing a child directory of a loaded location.

Why doesn’t python consider the current working directory to be a package? NO CLUE, but gosh it would be useful.

Original Author Multihunter Of This Content

Solution 2

import sys
sys.path.append("..") # Adds higher directory to python modules path.

Try this.
Worked for me.

Original Author Jenish Of This Content

Solution 3

Assumption:
If you are in the package directory, A and test_A are separate packages.

Conclusion:
..A imports are only allowed within a package.

Further notes:
Making the relative imports only available within packages is useful if you want to force that packages can be placed on any path located on sys.path.

EDIT:

Am I the only one who thinks that this is insane!? Why in the world is the current working directory not considered to be a package? – Multihunter

The current working directory is usually located in sys.path. So, all files there are importable. This is behavior since Python 2 when packages did not yet exist. Making the running directory a package would allow imports of modules as “import .A” and as “import A” which then would be two different modules. Maybe this is an inconsistency to consider.

Original Author User Of This Content

Solution 4

None of these solutions worked for me in 3.6, with a folder structure like:

package1/
    subpackage1/
        module1.py
package2/
    subpackage2/
        module2.py

My goal was to import from module1 into module2. What finally worked for me was, oddly enough:

import sys
sys.path.append(".")

Note the single dot as opposed to the two-dot solutions mentioned so far.


Edit: The following helped clarify this for me:

import os
print (os.getcwd())

In my case, the working directory was (unexpectedly) the root of the project.

Original Author Jason DeMorrow Of This Content

Conclusion

So This is all About This Tutorial. Hope This Tutorial Helped You. Thank You.

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