Make every fields as optional with Pydantic

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Make every fields as optional with Pydantic

  1. How to solve Make every fields as optional with Pydantic

    Solution with metaclasses
    I've just come up with the following:
    class AllOptional(pydantic.main.ModelMetaclass): def __new__(self, name, bases, namespaces, **kwargs): annotations = namespaces.get('__annotations__', {}) for base in bases: annotations.update(base.__annotations__) for field in annotations: if not field.startswith('__'): annotations[field] = Optional[annotations[field]] namespaces['__annotations__'] = annotations return super().__new__(self, name, bases, namespaces, **kwargs)
    Use it as:
    class UpdatedItem(Item, metaclass=AllOptional): pass
    So basically it replace all non optional fields with Optional
    Any edits are welcome!
    With your example:
    from typing import Optional from fastapi import FastAPI from pydantic import BaseModel import pydantic app = FastAPI() class Item(BaseModel): name: str description: str price: float tax: float class AllOptional(pydantic.main.ModelMetaclass): def __new__(self, name, bases, namespaces, **kwargs): annotations = namespaces.get('__annotations__', {}) for base in bases: annotations.update(base.__annotations__) for field in annotations: if not field.startswith('__'): annotations[field] = Optional[annotations[field]] namespaces['__annotations__'] = annotations return super().__new__(self, name, bases, namespaces, **kwargs) class UpdatedItem(Item, metaclass=AllOptional): pass # This continues to work correctly @app.get("/items/{item_id}", response_model=Item) async def get_item(item_id: int): return { 'name': 'Uzbek Palov', 'description': 'Palov is my traditional meal', 'price': 15.0, 'tax': 0.5, } @app.patch("/items/{item_id}") # does using response_model=UpdatedItem makes mypy sad? idk, i did not check async def update_item(item_id: str, item: UpdatedItem): return item

  2. Make every fields as optional with Pydantic

    Solution with metaclasses
    I've just come up with the following:
    class AllOptional(pydantic.main.ModelMetaclass): def __new__(self, name, bases, namespaces, **kwargs): annotations = namespaces.get('__annotations__', {}) for base in bases: annotations.update(base.__annotations__) for field in annotations: if not field.startswith('__'): annotations[field] = Optional[annotations[field]] namespaces['__annotations__'] = annotations return super().__new__(self, name, bases, namespaces, **kwargs)
    Use it as:
    class UpdatedItem(Item, metaclass=AllOptional): pass
    So basically it replace all non optional fields with Optional
    Any edits are welcome!
    With your example:
    from typing import Optional from fastapi import FastAPI from pydantic import BaseModel import pydantic app = FastAPI() class Item(BaseModel): name: str description: str price: float tax: float class AllOptional(pydantic.main.ModelMetaclass): def __new__(self, name, bases, namespaces, **kwargs): annotations = namespaces.get('__annotations__', {}) for base in bases: annotations.update(base.__annotations__) for field in annotations: if not field.startswith('__'): annotations[field] = Optional[annotations[field]] namespaces['__annotations__'] = annotations return super().__new__(self, name, bases, namespaces, **kwargs) class UpdatedItem(Item, metaclass=AllOptional): pass # This continues to work correctly @app.get("/items/{item_id}", response_model=Item) async def get_item(item_id: int): return { 'name': 'Uzbek Palov', 'description': 'Palov is my traditional meal', 'price': 15.0, 'tax': 0.5, } @app.patch("/items/{item_id}") # does using response_model=UpdatedItem makes mypy sad? idk, i did not check async def update_item(item_id: str, item: UpdatedItem): return item

Solution 1

Solution with metaclasses

I’ve just come up with the following:


class AllOptional(pydantic.main.ModelMetaclass):
    def __new__(self, name, bases, namespaces, **kwargs):
        annotations = namespaces.get('__annotations__', {})
        for base in bases:
            annotations.update(base.__annotations__)
        for field in annotations:
            if not field.startswith('__'):
                annotations[field] = Optional[annotations[field]]
        namespaces['__annotations__'] = annotations
        return super().__new__(self, name, bases, namespaces, **kwargs)

Use it as:

class UpdatedItem(Item, metaclass=AllOptional):
    pass

So basically it replace all non optional fields with Optional

Any edits are welcome!

With your example:

from typing import Optional

from fastapi import FastAPI
from pydantic import BaseModel
import pydantic

app = FastAPI()

class Item(BaseModel):
    name: str
    description: str
    price: float
    tax: float


class AllOptional(pydantic.main.ModelMetaclass):
    def __new__(self, name, bases, namespaces, **kwargs):
        annotations = namespaces.get('__annotations__', {})
        for base in bases:
            annotations.update(base.__annotations__)
        for field in annotations:
            if not field.startswith('__'):
                annotations[field] = Optional[annotations[field]]
        namespaces['__annotations__'] = annotations
        return super().__new__(self, name, bases, namespaces, **kwargs)

class UpdatedItem(Item, metaclass=AllOptional):
    pass

# This continues to work correctly
@app.get("/items/{item_id}", response_model=Item)
async def get_item(item_id: int):
    return {
        'name': 'Uzbek Palov',
        'description': 'Palov is my traditional meal',
        'price': 15.0,
        'tax': 0.5,
    }

@app.patch("/items/{item_id}") # does using response_model=UpdatedItem makes mypy sad? idk, i did not check
async def update_item(item_id: str, item: UpdatedItem):
    return item

Original Author Drdilyor Of This Content

Solution 2

The problem is once FastAPI sees item: Item in your route definition, it will try to initialize an Item type from the request body, and you can’t declare your model’s fields to be optional sometimes depending on some conditional, such as depending on which route it is used.

I have 3 solutions:

Solution #1: Separate Models

I would say that having separate models for the POST and PATCH payloads seems to be the more logical and readable approach. It might lead to duplicated code, yes, but I think clearly defining which route has an all-required or an all-optional model balances out the maintainability cost.

The FastAPI docs has a section for partially updating models with PUT or PATCH that uses Optional fields, and there’s a note at the end that says something similar:

Notice that the input model is still validated.

So, if you want to receive partial updates that can omit all the attributes, you need to have a model with all the attributes marked as optional (with default values or None).

So…

class NewItem(BaseModel):
    name: str
    description: str
    price: float
    tax: float

class UpdateItem(BaseModel):
    name: Optional[str] = None
    description: Optional[str] = None
    price: Optional[float] = None
    tax: Optional[float] = None

@app.post('/items', response_model=NewItem)
async def post_item(item: NewItem):
    return item

@app.patch('/items/{item_id}',
           response_model=UpdateItem,
           response_model_exclude_none=True)
async def update_item(item_id: str, item: UpdateItem):
    return item

Solution #2: Declare as All-Required, but Manually Validate for PATCH

You can define your model to have all-required fields, then define your payload as a regular Body parameter on the PATCH route, and then initialize the actual Item object “manually” depending on what’s available in the payload.

from fastapi import Body
from typing import Dict

class Item(BaseModel):
    name: str
    description: str
    price: float
    tax: float

@app.post('/items', response_model=Item)
async def post_item(item: Item):
    return item

@app.patch('/items/{item_id}', response_model=Item)
async def update_item(item_id: str, payload: Dict = Body(...)):
    item = Item(
        name=payload.get('name', ''),
        description=payload.get('description', ''),
        price=payload.get('price', 0.0),
        tax=payload.get('tax', 0.0),
    )
    return item

Here, the Item object is initialized with whatever is in the payload, or some default if there isn’t one. You’ll have to manually validate if none of the expected fields are passed, ex.:

from fastapi import HTTPException

@app.patch('/items/{item_id}', response_model=Item)
async def update_item(item_id: str, payload: Dict = Body(...)):
    # Get intersection of keys/fields
    # Must have at least 1 common
    if not (set(payload.keys()) & set(Item.__fields__)):
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail='No common fields')
    ...
$ cat test2.json
{
    "asda": "1923"
}
$ curl -i -H'Content-Type: application/json' --data @test2.json --request PATCH localhost:8000/items/1
HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
content-type: application/json

{"detail":"No common fields"}

The behavior for the POST route is as expected: all the fields must be passed.

Solution #3: Declare as All-Optional But Manually Validate for POST

Pydantic’s BaseModel‘s dict method has exclude_defaults and exclude_none options for:

  • exclude_defaults: whether fields which are equal to their default values (whether set or otherwise) should be excluded from the returned dictionary; default False

  • exclude_none: whether fields which are equal to None should be excluded from the returned dictionary; default False

This means, for both POST and PATCH routes, you can use the same Item model, but now with all Optional[T] = None fields. The same item: Item parameter can also be used.

class Item(BaseModel):
    name: Optional[str] = None
    description: Optional[str] = None
    price: Optional[float] = None
    tax: Optional[float] = None

On the POST route, if not all the fields were set, then exclude_defaults and exclude_none will return an incomplete dict, so you can raise an error. Else, you can use the item as your new Item.

@app.post('/items', response_model=Item)
async def post_item(item: Item):
    new_item_values = item.dict(exclude_defaults=True, exclude_none=True)

    # Check if exactly same set of keys/fields
    if set(new_item_values.keys()) != set(Item.__fields__):
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail='Missing some fields..')

    # Use `item` or `new_item_values`
    return item
$ cat test_empty.json
{
}
$ curl -i -H'Content-Type: application/json' --data @test_empty.json --request POST localhost:8000/items
HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
content-type: application/json

{"detail":"Missing some fields.."}

$ cat test_incomplete.json 
{
    "name": "test-name",
    "tax": 0.44
}
$ curl -i -H'Content-Type: application/json' --data @test_incomplete.json --request POST localhost:8000/items
HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
content-type: application/json

{"detail":"Missing some fields.."}

$ cat test_ok.json
{
    "name": "test-name",
    "description": "test-description",
    "price": 123.456,
    "tax": 0.44
}
$ curl -i -H'Content-Type: application/json' --data @test_ok.json --request POST localhost:8000/items
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
content-type: application/json

{"name":"test-name","description":"test-description","price":123.456,"tax":0.44}

On the PATCH route, if at least 1 value is not default/None, then that will be your update data. Use the same validation from Solution 2 to fail if none of the expected fields were passed in.

@app.patch('/items/{item_id}', response_model=Item)
async def update_item(item_id: str, item: Item):
    update_item_values = item.dict(exclude_defaults=True, exclude_none=True)

    # Get intersection of keys/fields
    # Must have at least 1 common
    if not (set(update_item_values.keys()) & set(Item.__fields__)):
        raise HTTPException(status_code=400, detail='No common fields')

    update_item = Item(**update_item_values)

    return update_item
$ cat test2.json
{
    "asda": "1923"
}
$ curl -i -s -H'Content-Type: application/json' --data @test2.json --request PATCH localhost:8000/items/1
HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
content-type: application/json

{"detail":"No common fields"}

$ cat test2.json
{
    "description": "test-description"
}
$ curl -i -s -H'Content-Type: application/json' --data @test2.json --request PATCH localhost:8000/items/1
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
content-type: application/json

{"name":null,"description":"test-description","price":null,"tax":null}

Original Author Gino Mempin Of This Content

Solution 3

Modified @Drdilyor solution.
Added checking for nesting of models.

from pydantic.main import ModelMetaclass, BaseModel
from typing import Any, Dict, Optional, Tuple

class _AllOptionalMeta(ModelMetaclass):
    def __new__(self, name: str, bases: Tuple[type], namespaces: Dict[str, Any], **kwargs):
        annotations: dict = namespaces.get('__annotations__', {})

        for base in bases:
            for base_ in base.__mro__:
                if base_ is BaseModel:
                    break

                annotations.update(base_.__annotations__)

        for field in annotations:
            if not field.startswith('__'):
                annotations[field] = Optional[annotations[field]]

        namespaces['__annotations__'] = annotations

        return super().__new__(mcs, name, bases, namespaces, **kwargs)

Original Author Maxim Of This Content

Solution 4

Thanks @Drdilyor for a great solution. I’ve made a version that lets you define required arguments in the child class (like the Id of the id of the item you want to update for example) :

class AllOptional(ModelMetaclass):
def __new__(self, name, bases, namespaces, **kwargs):
    annotations = namespaces.get('__annotations__', {})
    for base in bases:
        optionals = {
            key: Optional[value] if not key.startswith('__') else value for key, value in base.__annotations__.items()
        }
        annotations.update(optionals)

    namespaces['__annotations__'] = annotations
    return super().__new__(self, name, bases, namespaces, **kwargs)

Original Author Toussaint Behaghel Of This Content

Conclusion

So This is all About This Tutorial. Hope This Tutorial Helped You. Thank You.

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ittutorial team

I am an Information Technology Engineer. I have Completed my MCA And I have 4 Year Plus Experience, I am a web developer with knowledge of multiple back-end platforms Like PHP, Node.js, Python and frontend JavaScript frameworks Like Angular, React, and Vue.

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