Variable used in lambda expression should be final or effectively final

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Variable used in lambda expression should be final or effectively final

  1. Variable used in lambda expression should be final or effectively final

    A final variable means that it can be instantiated only one time.
    in Java you can't reassign non-final local variables in lambda as well as in anonymous inner classes.

  2. Variable used in lambda expression should be final or effectively final

    A final variable means that it can be instantiated only one time.
    in Java you can't reassign non-final local variables in lambda as well as in anonymous inner classes.

Solution 1

Although other answers prove the requirement, they don’t explain why the requirement exists.

The JLS mentions why in §15.27.2:

The restriction to effectively final variables prohibits access to dynamically-changing local variables, whose capture would likely introduce concurrency problems.

To lower risk of bugs, they decided to ensure captured variables are never mutated.

Original Author Dioxin Of This Content

Solution 2

A final variable means that it can be instantiated only one time.
in Java you can’t reassign non-final local variables in lambda as well as in anonymous inner classes.

You can refactor your code with the old for-each loop:

private TimeZone extractCalendarTimeZoneComponent(Calendar cal,TimeZone calTz) {
    try {
        for(Component component : cal.getComponents().getComponents("VTIMEZONE")) {
        VTimeZone v = (VTimeZone) component;
           v.getTimeZoneId();
           if(calTz==null) {
               calTz = TimeZone.getTimeZone(v.getTimeZoneId().getValue());
           }
        }
    } catch (Exception e) {
        log.warn("Unable to determine ical timezone", e);
    }
    return null;
}

Even if I don’t get the sense of some pieces of this code:

  • you call a v.getTimeZoneId(); without using its return value
  • with the assignment calTz = TimeZone.getTimeZone(v.getTimeZoneId().getValue()); you don’t modify the originally passed calTz and you don’t use it in this method
  • You always return null, why don’t you set void as return type?

Hope also these tips helps you to improve.

Original Author Francesco Pitzalis Of This Content

Solution 3

From a lambda, you can’t get a reference to anything that isn’t final. You need to declare a final wrapper from outside the lamda to hold your variable.

I’ve added the final ‘reference’ object as this wrapper.

private TimeZone extractCalendarTimeZoneComponent(Calendar cal,TimeZone calTz) {
    final AtomicReference<TimeZone> reference = new AtomicReference<>();

    try {
       cal.getComponents().getComponents("VTIMEZONE").forEach(component->{
        VTimeZone v = (VTimeZone) component;
           v.getTimeZoneId();
           if(reference.get()==null) {
               reference.set(TimeZone.getTimeZone(v.getTimeZoneId().getValue()));
           }
           });
    } catch (Exception e) {
        //log.warn("Unable to determine ical timezone", e);
    }
    return reference.get();
}   

Original Author DMozzy Of This Content

Solution 4

Java 8 has a new concept called “Effectively final” variable. It means that a non-final local variable whose value never changes after initialization is called “Effectively Final”.

This concept was introduced because prior to Java 8, we could not use a non-final local variable in an anonymous class. If you wanna have access to a local variable in anonymous class, you have to make it final.

When lambda was introduced, this restriction was eased. Hence to the need to make local variable final if it’s not changed once it is initialized as lambda in itself is nothing but an anonymous class.

Java 8 realized the pain of declaring local variable final every time a developer used lambda, introduced this concept, and made it unnecessary to make local variables final. So if you see the rule for anonymous classes has not changed, it’s just you don’t have to write the final keyword every time when using lambdas.

I found a good explanation here

Original Author Dinesh Arora Of This Content

Conclusion

So This is all About This Tutorial. Hope This Tutorial Helped You. Thank You.

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Siddharth

I am an Information Technology Engineer. I have Completed my MCA And I have 4 Year Plus Experience, I am a web developer with knowledge of multiple back-end platforms Like PHP, Node.js, Python and frontend JavaScript frameworks Like Angular, React, and Vue.

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